Prevalence of periodontal disease, its association with systemic diseases and prevention

  • Muhammad Ashraf Nazir University of Dammam College of Dentistry, Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Keywords: Periodontal disease, epidemiology, risk factors, systemic disease, preventive strategy

Abstract

Periodontal diseases are prevalent both in developed and developing countries and affect about 20-50% of global population. High prevalence of periodontal disease in adolescents, adults, and older individuals makes it a public health concern. Several risk factors such as smoking, poor oral hygiene, diabetes, medication, age, hereditary, and stress are related to periodontal diseases. Robust evidence shows the association of periodontal diseases with systemic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Periodontal disease is likely to cause 19% increase in the risk of cardiovascular disease, and this increase in relative risk reaches to 44% among individuals aged 65 years and over. Type 2 diabetic individuals with severe form of periodontal disease have 3.2 times greater mortality risk compared with individuals with no or mild periodontitis. Periodontal therapy has been shown to improve glycemic control in type 2 diabetic subjects. Periodontitis is related to maternal infection, preterm birth, low birth weight, and preeclampsia. Oral disease prevention strategies should be incorporated in chronic systemic disease preventive initiatives to curtail the burden of disease in populations. The reduction in the incidence and prevalence of periodontal disease can reduce its associated systemic diseases and can also minimize their financial impact on the health-care systems. It is hoped that medical, dental practitioners, and other health-care professionals will get familiar with perio-systemic link and risk factors, and need to refer to the specialized dental or periodontal care.

Author Biography

Muhammad Ashraf Nazir, University of Dammam College of Dentistry, Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Lecturer Dental Public Health Department of Preventive Dental Sciences University of Dammam College of Dentistry, Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Published
2017-04-09
How to Cite
Nazir, M. (2017, April 9). Prevalence of periodontal disease, its association with systemic diseases and prevention. International Journal of Health Sciences, 11(2). Retrieved from https://ijhs.org.sa/index.php/journal/article/view/1406
Section
Reviews