Undernutrition and associated factors among adults human immunodeficiency virus positive on anti-retroviral therapy (ART) in hospitals, East Hararge Zone, Oromia, Ethiopia
Objective: The aim of the study was to assess undernutrition and factors associated with, among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and on antiretroviral therapy (ART).
Methods: Facility-based cross-sectional study design was implemented. Data were collected using pretested structured questionnaire at ART service site. Basic descriptive statistics were computed. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association between outcome variable and explanatory variables.
Results: The prevalence of undernutrition (body mass index [BMI] ≤18.5 kg/m2) among patients on ART was 30%. The mean BMI was 20.3 with standard deviation ±2.9 kg/m2. Undernutrition was significantly associated with CD4 (200-500) (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.576, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.338, 0.979) and CD4 >500 (AOR = 0.431, 95% CI: 0.239-0.778), duration on ART >12 months (AOR = 0.466, 95% CI: 0.224, 0.966), unable to get nutritional care and support (AOR = 2.188, 95% CI: 1.349, 3.549), diarrhea (AOR = 1.641, 95% CI: 1.036, 2.6), khat chewing (AOR = 0.589, 95% CI: 0.377, 0.92), and severe food insecurity (AOR = 1.594, 95% CI: 1.008, 2.521).
Conclusions: Our study provides a unique insight into prevalence and associated factors of undernutrition which greatly affect ART outcomes. The study revealed that the undernutrition was found to be high and its problem in HIV-positive patients are interworsen. Diarrhea, severe food insecurity, nutritional care and support, khat chewing, CD4 >200/μl, and duration on ART >12 months were independently associated with undernutrition. Comprehensive nutritional assessment during followup and routine nutritional supplement therapy for undernutrition in conjunction with early start on ART need to be initiated.
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